はしくれエンジニアもどきのメモ

情報・Web系技術・Englishの勉強メモ・備忘録です。

速読英単語改訂第4版「07-08.知らない単語に出会ったら・・・」メモ (the memo of "if you come across a unknown word" in "SOKUDOKU English word revised 4th edition" )

0.7速読英単語改訂第4版「07-08.知らない単語に出会ったら・・・」メモ (the memo of "if you come across a unknown word" in "SOKUDOKU English word revised 4th edition" )

速読英単語改訂第4版「07-08.知らない単語に出会ったら・・・」の気になった英文・単語のメモ.(this article is a note of English sentense and word which I note in "chapter if you come across a unknown word" in "SOKUDOKU English word revised 4th edition".)

速読英単語1必修編[改訂第6版]

速読英単語1必修編[改訂第6版]

 

07.知らない単語に出会ったら・・・(1)

you frequently come across words you do not understand. [音声]

あなたは,頻繁に,理解していない単語に出くわす.

frequent

adj. 頻繁な happening or doing something often OPP infrequent

V. へしばしば訪れる to go to a particular place often
=>派 n.frequencyn. 頻度 1 [uncountable] the number of times that something happens within a particular period of time or within a particular group of peoplen. 頻発,定期 2 [uncountable] the fact that something happens a lot SYN regularityn. 周波数 3 [countable, uncountable] technical the number of radio waves, sound waves etc that pass any point per second=>派 adv. frequentlyadv. 頻繁に,しばしば very often or many times≒SYNoften
you look up the word in a dictionary and you guess.[音声]

あなたは,辞書で単語を調べ, そして,推測する.

look upa word in a dictionary
辞書で単語を調べる 2 look something ↔ up if you look up information in a book, on a computer etc, you try to find it there
guess
V. 推測する 1 [intransitive, transitive] to try to answer a question or form an opinion when you are not sure whether you will be correct
n. 推測 1 an attempt to answer a question or make a judgment when you are not sure whether you will be correct
 
make a guess: 推測する
It depends upon the degree of accuracy which you require and the time at your disposal.[音声]

それは,あなたが要求する正確さの程度とあなたの自由に使える時間に依存する.

accurate
adj. 正確な 1 INFORMATION correct and true in every detail OPP inaccurate
≒SYN exact
=>派 adv.accurately
adv. 正確に
=>派 n.accuracy
n. 正確さ 1 the ability to do something in an exact way without making a mistake
n. 精度 2 the quality of being correct or true OPP inaccuracy
random
adj. でたらめの 1 happening or chosen without any definite plan, aim, or pattern
at one's disposal
自由にしていい,好きにしていい,好きに使える available for someone to use
If you tend to use the dictionary frequently, remember that no definition is completely accurate. [音声]

もし辞書を頻繁に使う傾向にあるならば, こう覚えておきなさい, 定義が完全に正確ということはないと

tend
V. 傾向がある [tend to do something](http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/tend-to-do-something) if something tends to happen, it happens often and is likely to happen again

ex. the old woman tends to exaggerate. (そのおばさんは,大袈裟に話す傾向がある.)

V. の世話をする 2 (also tend to somebody/something) [transitive] old-fashioned to look after someone or something
=>派 n.tendency
n . 傾向 1 if someone or something has a tendency to do or become a particular thing, they are likely to do or become it
≒SYNtrend
n. 1 a general tendency in the way a situation is changing or developing
you will get an accurate understanding of a word after seeing the word in a variety of contexts. [音声]

あなたは,正確に理解するだろう, 様々な文脈の中でその単語を見た後では.

vary
V. 異なる 1 [intransitive] if several things of the same type vary, they are all different from each other SYN differ
V. 変わる 2 [intransitive] if something varies, it changes depending on the situation
V. に変化を与える 3 [transitive] to change something to make it different
=>派 n.variation
n. 変化 1 [countable, uncountable] a difference between similar things, or a change from the usual amount or form of something
=>派 n.variety
n. 種類 a variety of something
=>派 adj.various
adj. 様々な 1 if there are various things, there are several different types of that thing
≒SYN differ
V.違う,異なる 1 to be different from something in some way
=> adj.different
adj. 異なった,違う 1 not like something or someone else, or not like before
=> adv.differently
adv. 異なって
=> n.difference
n. 違い 1 [countable, uncountable] a way in which two or more people or things are not like each other OPP similarity
context
n. 背景 1 the situation, events, or information that are related to something and that help you to understand it
n. 文脈,前後関係 2 the words that come just before and after a word or sentence and that help you understand its meaning

ex. get the meaning of the word from context. (文の前後関係からその単語の意味を得る(知る))

Dictionaries which translate from English into Japanese are not as accurate as dictionaries which define words in their own language. [音声]

英語から日本語へ訳している辞書(英和辞典)は,その言語自身で単語を定義する辞書(英英辞典)ほど正確でない.

translate
V.翻訳する 1 CHANGE LANGUAGES [intransitive, transitive] to change written or spoken words into another language → interpret

ex. He traslated the letter from Japanse into English. (彼はその手紙を日本語から英語へ翻訳した)

V. 移す 4 CHANGE FORMS [intransitive, transitive] to change something, or be changed, from one form into another
≒SYNtransfer
=>派 n. translation
n. 翻訳 1 [countable, uncountable] when you translate something, or something that has been translated
So you should consult an English-English dictionary. [音声]

だから,あなた,英英辞典を調べるべきである.

consult
V. 相談する 1 [intransitive, transitive] to ask for information or advice from someone because it is their job to know something

ex. You had better consult a doctor. (あなたは医者に相談した(診てもらった)ほうがいい)

V. 本などを調べる 3 [transitive] to look for information in a book, map, list etc

08.知らない単語に出会ったら・・・(2)

In exams, you are not permitted to use a dictionary. [音声]

試験において,辞書を使うことを許されない.

examine
V. を調べる,を検査する,を調査する 1 to look at something carefully and thoroughly because you want to find out more about it
V. を診察する 2 examine.jpg if a doctor examines you, they look at your body to check that you are healthy
V. 試験をする 3 formal to ask someone questions to test their knowledge of a subject SYN test
=>派 n. examination
試験 1 [countable] formal a spoken or written test of knowledge, especially an important one SYN exam
exam
n. 試験,テスト 1 a spoken or written test of knowledge, especially an important one
explore
V. 調べる 1 [transitive] to discuss or think about something carefully SYN look at
V. 探索する 2 [intransitive, transitive] to travel around an area in order to find out about it
=>派 n. exploration探検 1 the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it or find something such as oil or gold in it探求 2 when you try to find out more about something by discussing it, thinking about it etc=>派 n.explorern. 探検家,探究家 someone who travels through an unknown area to find out about it
permit
V. 許す, 1 [transitive] to allow something to happen, especially by an official decision, rule, or law 2 [intransitive, transitive] to make it possible for something to happen
<=>OPPforbid
V. を禁じる 1 to tell someone that they are not allowed to do something, or that something is not allowed OPP permit
<=>OPPban
V. 禁じる an official order that prevents something from being used or done
≒SYNallow
Even if you are allowed to use dictionaries, time in exams is usually limited, so you are forced to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words. [音声]

たとえ,あなたが辞書を使うことを許されたとしても, 試験の時間はたいてい限られている, だから,あなたは,見慣れない単語の意味を推測することを強いられる(せざるをえない).

allow
V. を許す 1 CAN DO SOMETHING to let someone do or have something, or let something happen SYN permit
V. 許可する 2 MAKE SOMETHING POSSIBLE to make it possible for something to happen or for someone to do something, especially something helpful or useful SYN permit
=>派let
V. を許す 1 ALLOW [transitive not in passive] to allow someone to do something → allow, permit
limit
http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/limit
n. 制限 1 GREATEST/LEAST ALLOWED the greatest or least amount, number, speed etc that is allowed
n. 限界 2 GREATEST AMOUNT POSSIBLE (also limits) the greatest possible amount of something that can exist or be obtained
n. 境界 3 PLACE (also limits) the furthest point or edge of a place, often one that must not be passed
V. を制限する 1 [transitive] to stop an amount or number from increasing beyond a particular point
V. を抑える 2 [transitive] to stop someone from doing what they want or from developing and improving beyond a particular point
=>派 n.limitation
制限 1 [uncountable] the act or process of controlling or reducing something
限界 2 [countable usually plural] qualities that stop someone or something from being as good or as effective as you wish they could be SYN weakness
≒SYNrestrict
V. 制限する 1 to limit or control the size, amount, or range of something
=>派 n. restriction
n. 制限 1 [countable] a rule or law that limits or controls what people can do
n. 限界 2 [uncountable] when you restrict the size, amount, or range of something
unfamiliar words
見慣れない単語
There is no need to panic, however, because you can develop efficient methods to overcome such problems. [音声]

しかし, パニックになる必要はない, あなたは効率的な手法―そのような問題を克服する― を開発できるため,.

panic
n. 恐慌 1 [countable usually singular, uncountable] a sudden strong feeling of fear or nervousness that makes you unable to think clearly or behave sensibly
n. パニック,大混乱 2 [countable usually singular, uncountable] a situation in which people are suddenly made very anxious, and make quick decisions without thinking carefully
develop
V. 発展する 1 GROW [intransitive, transitive] to grow or change into something bigger, stronger, or more advanced, or to make someone or something do this
V. を開発する NEW IDEA/PRODUCT [transitive] to design or make a new idea, product, system etc over a period of time
V. (感情が)を発達する 3 FEELING [transitive] to start to have a feeling or quality that then becomes stronger
V. (スキル・能力)を発展する 4 SKILL/ABILITY [intransitive, transitive] if you develop a skill or ability, or if it develops, it becomes stronger or more advanced
V. (写真)を現像する 10 PHOTOGRAPHY [intransitive, transitive] to make a photograph out of a photographic film, using chemicals
=>派 n.development
n. 発達 the process of gradually becoming bigger, better, stronger, or more advanced
n. (経済的)発展 2 ECONOMIC ACTIVITY [uncountable] the process of increasing business, trade, and industrial activity
n. 開発 4 NEW PLAN/PRODUCT [uncountable] the process of working on a new product, plan, idea etc to make it successful
exploit
V. 搾取する 1 to treat someone unfairly by asking them to do things for you, but giving them very little in return – used to show disapproval

ex. the children were exploited as chep labor. その子供たちは,安価な労働力として搾取された.

V. を利用する 3 to use something fully and effectively
V. を開発する 4 to develop and use minerals, forests, oil etc for business or industry
=>派 n.exploitation
n. 搾取 1 a situation in which you treat someone unfairly by asking them to do things for you, but give them very little in return – used to show disapproval
n. 開発 2 the development and use of minerals, forests, oil etc for business or industry
efficient
adj. 効率的な if someone or something is efficient, they work well without wasting time, money, or energy OPP inefficient
=>派 n.effiency
n. 効率 1 [uncountable] the quality of doing something well and effectively, without wasting time, money, or energy OPP inefficiency
overcome
V. 克服する 1 to successfully control a feeling or problem that prevents you from achieving something
V. 打ち勝つ 4 to fight and win against someone or something SYN defeat
≒SYNdefeat
V. に勝つ 1 to win a victory over someone in a war, competition, game etc SYN beat
V. 失敗させる 3 to make something fail
≒SYNprevail
V. 流行する 1 if a belief, custom, situation etc prevails, it exists among a group of people at a certain time
V, 優勢だ,勝つ 2 if a person, idea, or principle prevails in a fight, argument etc, they are successful in the end
(1) - use contextual clues. The sentence itself usually suggest possible meanings for individual words. [音声]

(1) - 文脈上の手がかりを用いる. 文自身は,たいてい,個々の単語として考えうる意味を示唆している.

clues
手がかり 1 an object or piece of information that helps someone solve a crime or mystery
contextual clues :文脈上の手がかり
possible
adj. 考えうる 3 a possible answer, cause etc might be true
(2) - the formation of the word itself may tell you a lot. If you look at the parts of the word, you may learn something about the whole word. [音声]

(2) - 単語自身の形式は,あなたに多くを教えてくれるかもしれない. もし,あなたが単語のパーツをみるならば, あなたは,単語全体について何かを学ぶかもしれない.

any word beginning with un is likely to be a negative word. [音声]

'un'で始まるあらゆる単語は,否定的な単語である可能性が高い

You may find it helpful to compare the unknown word with similar words in your own language. [音声]

あなたは,気づくかもしれない, 未知の単語をあなた自身の言語(母国語)に似た単語と比較するのは役に立つと

helpful
adj. 役に立つ 1 providing useful help in making a situation better or easier
adj. 助けになる 2 always willing to help people
compare
V. を比較する 1 [transitive] to consider two or more things or people, in order to show how they are similar or different → comparison
=>派 n. comparison
n. 比較 1 COMPARING [uncountable] the process of comparing two or more people or things → compare, comparative
=>派 adj.comparable
adj. 比べらえる 1 similar to something else in size, number, quality etc, so that you can make a comparison → compare, comparison
adj. 匹敵する 2 being equally important, good, bad etc OPP incomparable
find it helpful to do
~することは役に立つとわかる(気づく).
similar
adj. 似通った almost the same OPP different → alike
≒SYNalike
adj. very similar
≒SYNparallel
adj. 平行な 1 two lines, paths etc that are parallel to each other are the same distance apart along their whole length
=>派 n. similarity
n. 似ていること [countable, uncountable] if there is a similarity between two things or people, they are similar in some way OPP difference → likeness
resemble
- V. に似ている to look like or be similar to someone or something

ex. She resembles her grandmother. (彼女は祖母に似ている.)

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