速読英単語改訂第4版「05.人間が作った道具」メモ (the memo of "05.best tool humans made" in "SOKUDOKU English word revised 4th edition" )

速読英単語改訂第4版「05.人間が作った道具」メモ (the memo of "05.best tool humans made" in "SOKUDOKU English word revised 4th edition" )

速読英単語改訂第4版「05.人間が作った道具」の気になった英文・単語のメモ.(this article is a note of English sentense and word which I note in chapter 05.best tool humans made" in "SOKUDOKU English word revised 4th edition".)





What makes humans different from other animals? [音声]


be different from
make O different
Is it language, thought, or tools? [音声]


n. 思考 4 ACT OF THINKING [uncountable] the act or process of thinking
n. 考え 1 SOMETHING YOU THINK ABOUT [countable] something that you think of, remember, or realize SYN idea
it is obvious that language distinguishes humans from the rest of the animals. [音声]


adj.明らかな,明白な 1 easy to notice or understand SYN clear

ex. the solution so obvious that I don't need proof.(その解は明白すぎて,私は証明を必要としない.)

adj. みてすぐわかる,見え透いた 2 behaving in a way that shows you want something very badly, when other people think this behaviour is not suitable

ex. I told her an obvious lie.(私は彼女に見えすいたうそをついた.)

adv 明らかに used to mean that a fact can easily be noticed or understood SYN clearly
adj. 1 unclear because someone does not give enough detailed information or does not say exactly what they mean
V. を区別する 1 [intransitive, transitive] to recognize and understand the difference between two or more things or people SYN differentiate
distinguish A from B: AをBと区別する
adj. 著名な 1 successful, respected, and admired SYN famous
n. 休み 1 RELAXING [countable, uncountable] a period of time when you are not doing anything tiring and you can relax or sleep
n. 残り the rest what is left after everything or everyone else has gone or been used, dealt with, or mentioned

ex. The rest of them are to stay behind.(彼らのうちの残りは,後に残ることになる.)

V. 休む 1 RELAX [intransitive] to stop working or doing an activity for a time and sit down or lie down to relax
V. 頼る,に基づく rest on 2 SUPPORT SOMETHING [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition] to support an object or part of your body by putting it on or against something, or to be supported in this way → lean

ex. He rested on my promise.(彼は,私の約束に頼った(を当てにした))

It is common to define humans as thinking animals


adj. よく起こる 1 HAPPENING OFTEN happening often and to many people or in many places OPP rare
adj. よくある 2 A LOT existing in large numbers OPP rare
adj. 共通の 3 SAME/SIMILAR [usually before noun, no comparative] common aims, beliefs, ideas etc are shared by several people or groups have O in common: Oを共通にもっている
adj. 普通の,一般の, 9 ORDINARY [only before noun, no comparative] ordinary and not special in any way
≒SYN mutual
adj. 相互の 1 mutual feelings such as respect, trust, or hatred are feelings that two or more people have for each other
adj. 共通の 2 [only before noun] mutual support, help etc is support that two or more people give each other
adj: 平凡な happening or existing in many places, and therefore not special or unusual
adj. 毎日の 1 happening or done every day
adj. 日常の daily life 日常生活
adj. まれな,珍しい rare or unusual
adv. 普通に 1 usually or by most people SYN widely
adv. 一般に 2 often, in many places, or in large numbers SYN widely
V. 定義する 2 to explain exactly the meaning of a particular word or idea → definition define A as B: AをBとして定義する
V. 明瞭に示す,明らかにする1 to describe something correctly and thoroughly, and to say what standards, limits, qualities etc it has that make it different from other things

ex. You defined the situation as unfavorable to us.(あなたは,その状況が私たちに不利であると明らかにした.)

=>派 n definition
n. 1 [countable] a phrase or sentence that says exactly what a word, phrase, or idea means
=>派 adj.definite
明確な 1 clearly known, seen, or stated SYN clear OPP indefinite
=>派 adv. definitely
adv. 明確に
[同意または強い肯定の表現として] 《口語》 確かに,そうですとも

ex. "You don't believe her?" (あなたは彼女を信じていない?) -- "Definitely not!"(そう,絶対に!)

furthermore, it is not as precise as people imagine. [音声]


adj. 正確な,厳密な 1 precise information, details etc are exact, clear, and correct SYN exact
2 [only before noun] used to emphasize that you are referring to an exact thing SYN exact

ex. the precise location of the ship(船の精密な場所)

=> 派 adv.precisely
adv. 正確に 1 exactly and correctly SYN exactly
=>派 n.precision
n. 正確 the quality of being very exact or correct
with precision 正確に

ex. with military precision 軍隊のように正確に

Some people describe humans as tool-making animals. [音声]


語法: describe about とはつかわない
V. を説明する,を言い表す,を描く,を記述する 1 to say what something or someone is like by giving details about them describe A as B: AをBと説明する,表現する
=>派 n.description
n. 描写,記述 1 a piece of writing or speech that gives details about what someone or something is like
be beyond description言い表せないほど,言い尽くせないほど, to be too good, bad, big etc to be described easily, = is too great to express in words(oxford)
語法: mention about とはつかわない
V. ~についていう,書く 1 to talk or write about something or someone, usually quickly and without saying very much or giving details

ex. Did she mention the accident? (彼女はその事故について話した?)

not to mention AAは言うまでもなく, used to introduce an additional thing that makes a situation even more difficult, surprising, interesting etc

ex. Pollution has a negative effect on the health of everyone, not to mention the damage to the environment. (汚染は,健康にネガティブな影響を与える,環境へのダメージはいうまでもなく)

language is the most remarkable tool that we have invented. [音声]


V. と言う,気づく to say something, especially about something you have just noticed

ex. Didn't he remark that you ware excited?(彼は気付かなかったのか,あなたが興奮していたことを?)

n. 感想,意見,発言 1 [countable] something that you say when you express an opinion or say what you have noticed SYN comment

make a remark on A: Aについて意見を述べる

ex. You are asked to make a remark on energy.(あなたは,エネルギーについて意見を述べるよう頼まれた)

=>adj. 派remarkable
adj. 注目すべき unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention (注目に値すること) or praise
V. 発明する 1 to make, design, or think of a new type of thing
V. 嘘をでっちあげる 2 to think of an idea, story etc that is not true, usually in order to deceive people
=>派 n. invention
n. 発明品 1 [countable] a useful machine, tool, instrument etc that has been invented
n. 発明 2 [uncountable] the act of inventing something
=>派 n. inventor
n. 発明家 someone who has invented something, or whose job is to invent things
Some apes use sticks for digging. [音声]


n. 類人猿 1 an animal that is similar to a monkey but has no tail or only a very short tail
dig > dug > dug > digging
V. 掘る 1 [intransitive, transitive] to move earth, snow etc, or to make a hole in the ground, using a spade or your hands
V. 2 (野菜など)を掘る [transitive] to remove something, especially vegetables, from the ground using a spade (シャベル)
V. 研究(探求)する 3 [intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition] to put your hand into something, especially in order to search for something
people have observed apes breaking sticks for this purpose.[音声]


V. を観察(観測)する,気づく 1 [transitive not in progressive] formal to see and notice something → observation  2 [intransitive, transitive] to watch something or someone carefully
observe A doing: Aが~するのを観測する
V. を述べる 3 [transitive] formal to say or write what you have noticed about a situation

ex. He observed that you would win.(彼は,あなたは勝つと述べた.)

V. (法律)を守る(従う) 4 [transitive] to do what you are supposed to do according to a law or agreement
V. (宗教・習慣の一部である法律)を守る(に従う) 5 [transitive] to do things and obey laws that are part of a religion or custom SYN follow
=>派 n.observation
観察 1 [countable, uncountable] the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time
意見 2 [countable] something that you notice when watching something or someone
=> 派 n.observer
観測者,観察者 1 someone who regularly watches or pays attention to particular things, events, situations etc  3 someone who sees or looks at something
adj. 注意深い 1 good or quick at noticing things
adj. よく守る 2 obeying laws, religious rules etc
=>派 n.observance
n. 遵守 1 [uncountable] when someone obeys a law or does something because it is part of a religion, custom, or ceremony
n. 行事 2 [countable] something you do as part of a ceremony, especially a religious ceremony
V. 絶えず監視する 1 to carefully watch and check a situation in order to see how it changes over a period of time
V. (電話など)を聴取する,を傍受する 2 to secretly listen to other people’s telephone calls, foreign radio broadcasts etc
n. 目的 1 [countable] the purpose of something is what it is intended to achieve 2 [countable] a plan or aim
on purpose わざと deliberately
目的 1 [countable] something you hope to achieve by doing something
7 AIM [usually plural] an aim or purpose, or the result you hope to achieve
n. 理由
n. 目的
for the sake of ~のために in order to help, improve, or please someone or something
human co-operation demands complicated tools. [音声]


V. 複雑化する 1 to make a problem or situation more difficult
V. (病気が)悪化する 2 to make an illness worse
V. を単純化する,を簡単にする to make something easier or less complicated
language is, in fact, the greatest tool. [音声]


n. 真実 1 TRUE INFORMATION [countable] a piece of information that is known to be true
n. 事実 6 REAL EVENTS/NOT A STORY [uncountable] situations, events etc that really happened and have not been invented OPP fiction
in fact 実際のところ,実際は
language makes human culture, thought and development possible. [音声]


make O possible